Spectrum of acute kidney injury in intensive care unit: a single centre experience

Suresh Kumar Sinha, Mukteshwar Rajak, Prabhakar ., Rajneesh ., Vivek Tripathi


Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with high mortality. A thorough understanding of the clinical spectrum of the disease is needed in order to device methods to improve the final outcome due to this problem. 

Aims and Objectives: The aim of present study was to analyze the clinical spectrum, causes, risk and prognostic factors and final outcome of AKI in the setting of ICU. 

Materials and Methods: This prospective study involved patients admitted to ICU during the period between June 09 to June 10. Patients who developed AKI during the ICU stay were included in the study. The clinical and laboratory data were collected at admission and then on daily basis. Data recorded includes patients demographic profile, underlying clinical illness responsible for ICU admission, dialysis requirement, need for ventilation, total duration of ICU stay, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE)-IV score and final outcome and these data were analyzed for predicting survival using univariate and multivariate analysis. 

Results: 574 patients were admitted to ICU from June 09 to June 10 and (n = 124; 21.6%) patients developed AKI after admission to ICU. Mean age 44.87 ± 15.14 years and (n = 71; 57.1%) were males and (n = 53; 42.9%) were females. Out of 124 patients (50.80%; n = 63) had medical, (33.87% n = 42) had surgical and (15.32%; n = 19) had obstetric cause of admission in ICU. Of the 574 patients (12.02%; n = 69) had associated co morbidities, hypertension is the most common associated morbidities (4.7%; n = 27), others were diabetes mellitus (3.6%; n = 21), coronary artery disease (3.0%; n = 17), cerebrovascular disease (0.3%; n = 2), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.3%; n = 2;). The etiology of AKI was multi-factorial, sepsis were the most common cause observed in (69.64%; n = 39), hypotension (67.84%; n = 38), volume depletion (19.64%; n = 11), nephrotoxic drugs (64.28%; n = 36) patients. Multi organ system failure (MOSF) was noted in (29.03%; n = 36) patients. MOSF and sepsis were found to be significant adverse prognostic factors when multiple logistic regression analysis was done. 

Conclusion: AKI was seen in 21.6% of cases in our ICU and associated with poor prognosis. Presence of sepsis, MOSF, higher APACHE IV scores and ventilation requirement were correlated with higher mortality in AKI patients in ICU. Early recognisition and intervention improves the outcome.


Acute kidney injury, Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score, Intensive care unit, Multi organ system failure

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